What Does It Mean To Be The Light of the World and the Salt of the Earth? (Part One)

What Does It Mean To Be The Light of the World and the Salt of the Earth

For ye were sometimes darkness, but now [are ye] light in the Lord: Walk as children of Light
(For the fruit of the Spirit [is] in all goodness and righteousness and truth;) Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.
And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove [them].
For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.

But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light
For whatsoever doth make manifest is light.

Ephesians 5:8-13

I. Introduction: Light As It Relates To The Body Of Christ

What was intended as a quick study on what it meant to be the light of the world and the salt of the earth ended up taking upon itself a life of its own. The result was both enlightening and fearful; fearful because the majesty of God’s word, the cohesiveness of it, and the patterns used to weave it together are truly humbling and awe-inspiring. God’s word is absolutely magnificent and the depths of it literally knows no bounds. This study could go on forever but I am trying to limit it to some degree for the sake of time and comprehension.

The basic intent is to show that:

  1. The Body of Christ is light through the grace, operation, and indwelling presence of the Triune Godhead – who is Light.
  2. The Body of Christ is light through oneness with Christ, even eternal vital union with Him, who is, Light; we are light because His Light shines in us, and through us, without regard to whether or not those without can comprehend it.
  3. The Body of Christ is light through our proclamation of the Gospel of Christ, in light of the whole counsel of God (the Holy Bible) which is Light.
  4. The Body of Christ is Light in that our very spirits, when quickened by the Spirit of God, are lights/lamps/candles that will burn eternally, fueled by the spiritual oil of the Holy Spirit, and will never be put out.
  5. The Body of Christ is both Light and Salt in that we proclaim grace seasoned with judgment, revealing (making manifest) the sins of the world, reproving them concerning it, and declaring Christ as the only Hope of deliverance from both sin and the eternal wrath due it (for both Light and Salt, amongst other things, represent the judgment of God).
  6. The Body of Christ manifests/declares/reveals/shines as Light primarily through witnessing, preaching, biblical teaching, etc., though our Christian walk (our God-ordained, God-wrought, good works) likewise plays an important (though lesser) role [think of Philip with the Ethiopian Eunuch as an example].
  7. The Body of Christ walks as fools (lit. morons, per mōrainō/mōros) to the degree that we refrain from bringing the whole counsel of God, choosing only to proclaim that which is pleasing to the ear, rather than that which is needful to The Body, and to the world at large, failing to reprove the unfruitful works of darkness, and/or failing to point them to the Light of Christ as their only hope for deliverance and salvation.

Light and salt must encompass, and incorporate, all of the unabrogated commandments of God (all of His imperative verbs and exhortations, which makes up His nomos for us, His parceled out food for His flock, which is the root meaning of nomos, the New Testament word for law). Christ is the end of the law for both righteousness and sanctification — period. The Christian is not under the law (its dominion, condemnation, or curse). However, through the operation of God in a Christian, pertaining to the good works that He alone works in us, as He causes us to both will and do of His good pleasure, having foreordained (before the world was) that we should walk in the works that He manifests through us (seeing that we are His workmanship created unto good works), we ought to clearly and honestly declare that we do indeed love, delight in, declare, and walk according to all the commandments He has set forth for us in our day, to the degree that He alone both ordains and enables. To say that we are without law (lawless) is to say that we have no parceled out food for the flock, which is a lie, for out Bread is Christ; our Milk is His Gospel; and our meat is the whole counsel of God (grace and judgment, Gospel and law — whether the law is Mosaic and thus a type only, designed to point us to Christ, or whether the law is spiritual, as seen in the Beatitudes, and other commandments clearly meant for those of us living in the New Testament economy). That aspect of His law, His commandments, which remains for us today, and which we manifest through the effectual working of the Holy Spirit as He sovereignly, through Christ, by the will of the Father, bears fruit in our lives, is a very important part of the Light that shines forth in us, and through us, by God’s grace. 

Some may argue that the Gospel alone is that which we bear, or shine forth, as the Light of the World and the Salt of the Earth. Some will argue that the preaching of the cross alone is Light and Salt and that anything pertaining to the law is death, darkness, and that which is to be put away, kept away, and nigh disdained. This is morainos, moros, moronic, or foolish (per the actual, literal, biblical language). Our primary focus is the Gospel, the good news of the Person, work, and righteousness of Christ, and all that it entails, all that accompanies it. However, this is grace! Grace must be the primary focus, the primary message. However, when the Bible alone defines the terms that God uses, we see that grace must be accompanied by, even seasoned with, salt and light. Salt and light both, amongst other things, incorporates the law, judgment, condemnation, and wrath of God. This study, I trust, will make that abundantly clear. We must point men and women  to Christ for salvation; however, they must know what it is that they are saved from; they must know that they are saved from sin, their sins, and the wrath due those sins (eternal damnation in Hell). Yet, they must know what their sins are; they must know what constitutes sin. They must be given light to know that sin is the transgression of the law and they must know what the law is to  understand what they are transgressing. This may sound legalistic but it isn’t; it isn’t because it is not the primary focus; think of it as the segue, the entrance point, the means by which  we can bring the Gospel forth. We all speak against sin in some form or fashion, but such declarations against sin, if they end there, are just empty forms of religion. True legalism is law without grace; or law mixed with grace so as to attain to a God-pleasing degree of righteousness or sanctification before Him.  What the Christian does is warn of the dangers of this sin or that, this activity or that, but then uses such warnings as a means to enter into the Gospel message. Examples of this abound in the book of Acts (and elsewhere). Moreover, God’s very words, when considered deeply , thoroughly, and holistically, bears this out. I am jumping the gun a bit, but as one example, the Hebrew word zahar, which pertains to being light, has as a primary meaning to enlighten by caution but also to warn, to admonish, to teach; to shine or be bright; to send out light, be light in so doing. There are many other passages pertaining to Light being not only Gospel but (unabrogated) law, or commandment, as well. Likewise, the word salt is so integrated with law, judgment, wrath, and condemnation that it is impossible to deny after reviewing all of the biblical evidence.

Nonetheless, it’s not my words, but God’s words, that will affirm or refute the position. I pray that you will consider it carefully. However, I ask you to please pay careful attention to the Greek and Hebrew words within the quoted passages; not because the Greek and Hebrew are necessary to prove the points, but because they help to more clearly identify the way in which the words are used, and how they connect one passage to another. The presence of the Greek and Hebrew serve as something like unto different-coloured highlighters to emphasize how things that do not (on the surface) appear to tie-in, do so perfectly and beautifully. The word of God is like an amazing tapestry or an intricate building of unfathomable design. I cannot properly put into words what I aim to say next but hope I can get the thought across. God’s words are almost three-dimensional. If you were to write on paper the key words, their use, their inter-connections, and their amplifying purposes, and then connect them by lines, it would help to see things more clearly, but the two-dimensional lines alone would seem chaotic, all over the place, not easily grasped by viewing with the eye on paper. However, if those lines connecting the key words, passages, principles, and precepts, became pillars (in some three dimensional sense) and not just two-dimensional connectors, what a structure we would have. We could stand in the midst of it and see (much more clearly) how word after word, passage after passage, doctrine after doctrine, everything ties-in together in such an intricate, astonishing, absolutely mind-blowing fashion. Everything really is connected; I have said many times before and believe it all the more now, that God does not have doctrines — God has one interconnected doctrine with a multitude of facets. Those facets all fit in their respective places within the one doctrine and amongst all of the other facets that constitute that one doctrine – even the Doctrine of Christ. Everything relates, everything ties in, everything is joined together, and everything flows into everything else when the biblical elements are rightly identified and considered. This is what I aim to show below, in a very limited degree, in addition to the primary topic at hand (which is what it means to be light and salt, what constitutes light and salt, how light and salt is made manifest, and how we are to operate in… light… of what is being unveiled/revealed before us).   

II. Light, Its Identity, Forms, and Purpose.

The primary purpose of light in the Bible is four-fold:

  • Firstly, it reveals the character, nature, and attributes of God;
  • Secondly, it exposes, judges, and condemns sin via the law of God;
  • Thirdly, seeing that Christ is The Light (and the Triune Godhead in and with Him), light reveals the glory of God in the salvation of lost sinners through the finished work of Christ [His representational, substitutionary atonement on behalf of His elect as He endured the judgment, condemnation, and wrath of God in their stead]; and
  • Fourthly, this vital Light, through the Holy Spirit, enlightens quickened sinners unto salvation (giving them life and bringing life and immortality to light through the Gospel). The spirit within man is deemed light (e.g. a candle) but whether that light be Light (being single, God-wrought, and focused on Christ after the inner man) or whether that light be utter darkness (with an eye evil, focused on this world, revealing an unregenerate, spiritually-unenlightened state before God) is all in the hands of Him who is Light.

The following passages will evidence that not only is Christ and the Triune Godhead – Light, but the body of Christ (quickened believers) are also deemed light, as is the whole counsel of God (for the law of God, all of Scripture, is light). As it pertains to the elect Body, so long as we bring both grace and judgment (the Gospel in light of the entirety of Scripture), we (through Christ, which is our indwelling Light) are the Light of the world. We are this light particularly as we reprove the unfruitful works of darkness [Ephesians 5:11] and declare the good news of the Lord Jesus Christ, our blessed Hope for deliverance from sin, and from the eternal wrath due our sin.

A. The Godhead Is Light

1 John 1:5-7 This then is the message which we have heard of Him, and declare unto you, that God is Light [Phōs/G5457], and in Him is no darkness at all. 6 If we say that we have fellowship with Him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth: 7 But if we walk in The Light [Phōs/G5457], as HE IS IN The Light [Phōs/G5457], we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanseth us from all sin.

James 1:16-18 Do not err, my beloved brethren. 17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from The father of Lights [Phōs/G5457], with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. 18 Of His own will begat He us with the word of Truth, that we should be a kind of firstfruits of His creatures.

2 Samuel 22:29 For THOU [ART] MY Lamp [Niyr/H5216], O LORD: and The LORD will lighten [nagahh/H5050] my darkness.

Psalm 27:1 The LORD [IS] MY Light [‘owr/H216] and my salvation; whom shall I fear? the LORD [is] the strength of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? 

Nehemiah 9:7, 12Thou [art] the LORD the God, who didst choose Abram, and broughtest Him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gavest Him the name of Abraham… 12 Moreover Thou leddest them in the day by a cloudy pillar; and in the night by a pillar of fire, to give them Light [‘owr/H215] in The Way wherein they should go.

Habakkuk 3:3-5  God came from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of His praise. 4 And [His] Brightness [nogahh/H5051] was as The Light [‘owr/H216]; He had horns [coming] out of His hand: and there [was] the hiding of His power. 5 Before Him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at His feet.

Lamentations 2:1-3 How hath the Lord covered the daughter of Zion with a cloud in His anger, [and] cast down from heaven unto the earth The Beauty of Israel, and remembered not His footstool in the day of His anger! 2 The Lord hath swallowed up all the habitations of Jacob, and hath not pitied: He hath thrown down in His wrath the strong holds of the daughter of Judah; He hath brought [them] down to the ground: He hath polluted the kingdom and the princes thereof. 3 He hath cut off in [His] fierce anger all The Horn of Israel: He hath drawn back His Right Hand from before the enemy, and He burned against Jacob like a flaming [lehabah/H3852] fire [‘esh/H784], [which] devoureth round about.

Hebrews 12:28-29 Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear: 29 For Our God [is] a consuming fire [pyr/g4442].

Daniel 5:11-14 There is a man in thy kingdom, in whom [is] The Spirit of the holy Gods; and in the days of thy father Light [nahiyruw/H5094] and Understanding and Wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was found in him; whom the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king, [I say], thy father, made master of the magicians, astrologers, Chaldeans, [and] soothsayers; 12 Forasmuch as an excellent spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, interpreting of dreams, and shewing of hard sentences, and dissolving of doubts, were found in the same Daniel, whom the king named Belteshazzar: now let Daniel be called, and he will shew the interpretation. 13 Then was Daniel brought in before the king. [And] the king spake and said unto Daniel, [Art] Thou that Daniel, which [art] of the children of the captivity of Judah, whom the king my father brought out of Jewry? 14 I have even heard of Thee, that The Spirit of the gods [is] in Thee, and [that] light [nahiyruw/H5094] and understanding and excellent wisdom is found in thee.

Daniel 2:20-23 Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the Name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are His: 21 And he changeth the times and the seasons: He removeth kings, and setteth up kings: He giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding: 22 He revealeth the deep and secret things: He knoweth what [is] in the darkness, and The Light [nahiyruw/H5094] dwelleth with Him. 23 I thank Thee, and praise Thee, O Thou God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom and might, and hast made known unto me now what we desired of Thee: for Thou hast [now] made known unto us the king’s matter.

Isaiah 11:1-5 And there shall come forth a Rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of His roots: 2 And (1) The Spirit of the LORD shall rest upon Him, (2-3) The Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding, (4-5) The Spirit of Counsel and Might, (6-7) The Spirit of Knowledge and of the Fear of the LORD; 3 And shall make Him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: and he shall not judge after the sight of His eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of His ears: 4 But with righteousness shall He judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked. 5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of His loins, and faithfulness the girdle of His reins.

Note: The Holy Spirit, in His seven-fold ministry [Isaiah 11:1-2], is the Seven Spirits of God and the Seven Lamps of Fire. With this understanding, we begin to see a connection between Spirit, Light, Lamps, Flame, Fire, Brightness, Shining, Eyes, etc.; this connection will become even more evident as we continue.

Revelations 5:6-7 And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof. 6 And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having Seven Horns and Seven Eyes, which are the Seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. 7 And He came and took the book out of the Right Hand of Him that sat upon the throne.

Revelations 4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and [there were] Seven Lamps [lampas / G2985] of Fire [pyr / g4442] burning before the throne, which are the Seven Spirits of God.

Zechariah 4:1-6 And the angel that talked with me came again, and waked me, as a man that is wakened out of His sleep, 2 And said unto me, What seest Thou? And I said, I have looked, and behold a candlestick all [of] gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and his Seven Lamps [Niyr/H5216] thereon, and seven pipes to the Seven Lamps [Niyr/H5216], which [are] upon the top thereof: 3 And two olive trees by it, one upon the right [side] of the bowl, and the other upon the left [side] thereof. 4 So I answered and spake to the angel that talked with me, saying, What [are] these, my lord? 5 Then the angel that talked with me answered and said unto me, Knowest Thou not what these be? And I said, No, my lord. 6 Then he answered and spake unto me, saying, This [is] the word of the LORD unto Zerubbabel, saying, Not by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith the LORD of hosts.

Ezekiel 8:1-3 And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth [month], in the fifth [day] of the month, [as] I sat in mine house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that The Hand of the Lord GOD fell there upon me. 2 Then I beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of fire [‘esh; H784]: from the appearance of His loins even downward, fire [‘esh; H784]; and from His loins even upward, as the appearance of brightness [zohar/H2096], as the colour of amber. 3 And He put forth the form of an hand, and took me by a lock of mine head; and the Spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem, to the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north; where [was] the seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh to jealousy. 4 And, behold, The Glory of The God of Israel [was] there, according to the vision that I saw in the plain.

Ezekiel 1:4-13 And I looked, and, behold, a Whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness [was] about it, and out of the midst thereof as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire. 5 Also out of the midst thereof [came] the likeness of four living creatures. And this [was] their appearance; they had the likeness of a Man. 6 And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings. 7 And their feet [were] straight feet; and the sole of their feet [was] like the sole of a calf’s foot: and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass. 8 And [they had] the hands of a Man under their wings on their four sides; and they four had their faces and their wings. 9 Their wings [were] joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward. 10 As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle. 11 Thus [were] their faces: and their wings [were] stretched upward; two [wings] of every one [were] joined one to another, and two covered their bodies. 12 And they went every one straight forward: whither the Spirit was to go, they went; [and] they turned not when they went. 13 As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance [was] like burning coals of fire, [and] like the appearance of Lamps: it went up and down among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning. 14 And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning. 

Ezekiel 1:26-28 And above the firmament that [was] over their heads [was] the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne [was] the likeness as the appearance of a Man above upon it. 27 And I saw as the colour of amber, as the appearance of fire [‘esh; H784] round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire [‘esh; H784], and it had Brightness [nogahh/H5051] round about. 28 As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so [was] the appearance of The Brightness [nogahh/H5051] round about. This [was] the appearance of the likeness of The Glory of the LORD. And when I saw [it], I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spake.

Daniel 7:9-10 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and THE ANCIENT OF DAYS did sit, whose garment [was] white as snow, and the hair of His head like the pure wool: His throne [was like] the fiery flame, [and] His wheels [as] burning fire. 10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before Him: thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

Revelations 1:11-16 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea. 12 And I turned to see the Voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; 13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks [one] like unto THE SON OF MAN, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. 14  His head and [his] hairs [were] white like wool, as white as snow; and His eyes [were] as a flame [phlox/G5395] of fire [pyr/G4442]; 15 And His feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and His voice as the sound of many waters. 16 And He had in His Right Hand seven stars: and out of His mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and His countenance [was] as the sun shineth [phainō/G5316]; in his strength.

B. The Lord Jesus [God The Word Incarnate, Christ The Head of the Body] Is Light

John 1-3, 14; 4-9; In the beginning was The Word, and The Word was with God, and The Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by Him; and without Him was not any thing made that was made. … 14 And The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only Begotten of The Father,) full of grace and truth4 In Him was Life; and The Life was The Light [Phōs/G5457] of men. 5 And The Light [Phōs/G5457] shineth [phainō/G5316] in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not. 6 There was a man sent from God, whose name [was] John. 7 The same came for a witness, to bear witness of that Light [Phōs/G5457] that all [men] through Him might believe. 8 He was not that Light [Phōs/G5457], but [was sent] to bear witness of that Light [Phōs/G5457]. 9 [That] was The True Light [phōs/G5457], which lighteth [phōtizō/G5461] every man that cometh into the world.

John 3:17-21 For God sent not His Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through Him might be saved. 18 He that believeth on Him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the Only Begotten Son of God. 19 And this is the condemnation, that Light [Phōs/G5457] is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than Light [Phōs/G5457], because their deeds were evil. 20 For every one that doeth evil hateth The Light [Phōs/G5457], neither cometh to The Light [Phōs/G5457], lest His deeds should be reproved. 21 But he that doeth truth cometh to The Light [Phōs/G5457], that His deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.

John 8:12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I AM The Light [Phōs/G5457] of the world: he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have The Light [Phōs/G5457] of Life.

[See John 14:6 “Jesus saith unto Him, I AM The Way, The Truth, and The Life: no man cometh unto The Father, but by Me.”].

John 9:5 As long as I Am in the world, I AM The Light [Phōs/G5457] of the world.

Revelations 21:22-23 And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are The Temple of it. 23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine [phainō/G5316] in it: for The Glory of God did lighten [phōtizō/G5461] it, and The Lamb [is] The Light [lychnos/G3088] thereof. 24 And the nations of The Light [Phōs/G5457] of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.

Revelations 19:7-9 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to Him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready. 8 And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white [lampros/G2986]: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. 9 And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed [are] they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.

[See Jeremiah 23:5-6 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a RIGHTEOUS BRANCH, AND A KING shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. 6 In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this [is] HIS name whereby HE shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. –AND– Jeremiah 33:14 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will perform that good thing which I have promised unto the House of Israel and to the House of Judah. 15 In those days, and at that time, will I cause THE BRANCH OF RIGHTEOUSNESS to grow up unto David; and He shall execute judgment and righteousness in the land. 16 In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely: and this [is the name] wherewith SHE shall be called, The LORD our righteousness. –AND– 1 Corinthians 1:27-31 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty; 28 And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, [yea], and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are: 29 That no flesh should glory in his presence. 30 But of Him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and RIGHTEOUSNESS, and sanctification, and redemption: 31 That, according as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord. –AND– Matthew 17:1-2 And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart, 2 And was transfigured before them: and His face did shine [lampō/G2989] as the sun, and His raiment was white as The Light [Phōs/G5457].

Isaiah 4:2-6 In that day shall the BRANCH OF THE LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth [shall be] excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel. 3 And it shall come to pass, [that he that is] left in Zion, and [he that] remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, [even] every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem: 4 When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the Spirit of Judgment, and by the Spirit of Burning. 5 And the LORD will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining [nogahh/H5051] of a flaming [lehabah/H3852] fire [‘esh/H784] by night: for upon all the glory [shall be] a defence. 6 And there shall be a Tabernacle for a shadow in the daytime from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain.

2 Samuel 23:1-4 Now these [be] the last words of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man [who was] raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said, 2 The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and His word [was] in my tongue. 3 The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men [must be] just, ruling in the fear of God. 4 And [He shall be] as The Light [‘owr/H216] of the Morning, [when] the sun riseth, [even] a Morning without clouds; [as] the tender grass [springing] out of the earth by clear shining after rain.

Revelations 22:16 I Jesus have sent Mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. [and] I AM the Root and Offspring of David, The Bright [Lampros/G2986] and Morning star.

2 Peter 1:19 We have also a more sure Word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light [lychnos/G3088] that shineth [phainō/G5316] in a dark place, until The Day dawn, and The Day Star [Phōsphoros/G5459] arise in your hearts:

Isaiah 60:1-3 Arise, shine [‘owr/H215]; for Thy Light [‘owr/H216] is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee. 2 For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon Thee, and His glory shall be seen upon thee. 3 And the Gentiles shall come to Thy Light [‘owr/H216], and kings to the brightness [nogahh/H5051] of Thy rising.

Psalm 84:11-12 For The LORD God [is] a Sun [Shemesh/H8121] and Shield: the LORD will give grace and glory: no good [thing] will he withhold from them that walk uprightly. 12 O LORD of hosts, blessed [is] the man that trusteth in Thee..

Malachi 4:1-3 For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch. 2 But unto you that fear my name shall The Sun [Shemesh/H8121] of Righteousness arise with healing in His wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall. 3 And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall do [this], saith the LORD of hosts.

2 Kings 8:19] Yet the LORD would not destroy Judah for David His servant’s sake, as He promised him to give him alway a Light [niyr / H5216] [and] to His children.

2 Chronicles 21:7 Howbeit the LORD would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that he had made with David, and as He promised to give a Light [niyr / H5216] to him and to his sons for ever.

Isaiah 10:16-17 Therefore shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send among His fat ones leanness; and under His glory He shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire [‘esh/H784]. 17 And The Light [‘owr/H216] of Israel shall be for a fire [‘esh/H784], and His Holy One for a flame [lehabah/H3852].

Matthew 4:12-17 Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, He departed into Galilee; 13 And leaving Nazareth, He came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim: 14 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, 15 The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, [by] the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles; 16 The people which sat in darkness saw Great Light [phōs/G5457]; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death Light [phōs/G5457] is sprung up. 17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

Isaiah 9:1-2 Nevertheless the dimness [shall] not [be] such as [was] in her vexation, when at the first He lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, and afterward did more grievously afflict [her by] the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee of the nations. 2 The people that walked in darkness have seen a Great Light [‘owr/H216]: they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath The Light [‘owr/H216] shined [nagahh/H5050].

Luke 1:78-79 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby The Dayspring from on high hath visited us, 79 To give Light to them that sit in darkness and [in] the shadow of death, to guide our feet into The Way of Peace. 

Proverbs 4:18-19 But The Path [lit. The Way] of the just [is] as the shining [nogahh/H5051] light [‘owr/H216], that shineth [‘owr/H215] more and more unto the perfect day. 19 The way of the wicked [is] as darkness: they know not at what they stumble.

2 Samuel 22:29 For THOU [ART] MY lamp [niyr/H5216], O LORD: and the LORD will lighten [nagahh/H5050] my darkness.

Revelations 1:11-16 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea. 12 And I turned to see the Voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks; 13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks [one] like unto THE SON OF MAN, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. 14  His head and [his] hairs [were] white like wool, as white as snow; and His eyes [were] as a flame [phlox/G5395] of fire [pyr/G4442]; 15 And His feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and His voice as the sound of many waters. 16 And He had in His Right Hand seven stars: and out of His mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and His countenance [was] as the sun shineth [phainō/G5316]; in his strength.

Revelations 2:18 And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath His eyes like unto a flame [phlox/G5395] of fire [pyr/G4442], and His feet [are] like fine brass…

Revelations 19:11-16 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and He that sat upon him [was] called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He doth judge and make war. 12 His eyes [were] as a flame [phlox/G5395] of fire [pyr/G4442], and on His head [were] many crowns; and He had a name written, that no man knew, but He Himself. 13 And He [was] clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and His name is called The Word of God. 14 And the armies [which were] in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. 15 And out of His mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations: and He shall rule them with a rod of iron: and He treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 16 And He hath on [his] vesture and on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

So here we have the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Light-Bearer/Carrier/Bringer, yoked with words like Light, Lamps, Flame, Fire, Brightness, Shining, Eyes, Star, Sun; Morning, Day, Day/Morning star, etc.; this connection reinforces the above portion and will further connect us to the portions below. Keep in mind that God the Holy Spirit was already divinely and intimately connected with Christ, from before the word was. However, we must remember that when our Lord emptied Himself of His manifest (but not absolute) glory, the Spirit came upon Him (at the Lord’s water baptism), enabling Him to do all that He did. Likewise, the Holy Spirit enables us to do all the good that God has ordained for us to do, through our union with Christ, and through our union with the Godhead in and with Him. Thus, we see the entirety of the Godhead yoked with the aforementioned Light, and light-related, terms. Which leads us to this next section..

C. The Elect Congregation, Christ the Body, Is Light (1) Through Eternal Vital Union With The Lord Jesus Christ, The Head Of The Body and (2) Through Our Declarations (Before Men) Of His Holy Truth (Both Law And Gospel).

Matthew 5:13-19 “Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men. 14 Ye are The light [phōs / G5457] of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid. 15 Neither do men light a candle [lychnos/G3088], and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light [lampō/G2989] unto all that are in the house. 16 Let your light [phōs/G5457] so shine [lampō/G2989] before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

1 Thessalonians 5:4-6  But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief. 5 Ye are all the children of Light [phōs/G5457], and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. 6 Therefore let us not sleep, as [do] others; but let us watch and be sober.

Ephesians 5:8-13 “For ye were sometimes darkness, but now [are ye] light [phōs/G5457] in The Lord: walk as children of Light [phōs/G5457]: 9 (For the fruit of the Spirit [is] in all goodness and righteousness and truth…).

Philippians 2:14-16 Do all things without murmurings and disputings: 15 That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God,  without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine [phainō/G5316] as lights [phōstēr/G5458] in the world; 16 Holding forth the Word of Life; that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither laboured in vain.

Revelation 21:10-11 And he carried me away in the Spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, 11 Having the glory of God: and her light [phōstēr / G5458] [was] like unto a Stone most precious, even lik a jasper stone, clear as crystal;

Luke 16:8 And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of tHis world are in their generation wiser than the children of Light [phōs/G5457]…

John 5:33-35 Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto The Truth. 34 But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved. 35 He was a burning and a shining [phainō/G5316] light [lychnos/G3088]: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light [phōs/G5457]…

2 Corinthians6:14-18 Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath Light [phōs/G5457] with darkness? 15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? 16 And what agreement hath The Temple of God with idols? for ye are The Temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in [them]; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 17 Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith The Lord, and touch not the unclean [thing]; and I will receive you, 18 And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith The Lord Almighty.

[Regarding a further understanding of Light with the Temple of God aspect, consider also Revelations 21:22-23 And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are The Temple of it. 23 And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine [phainō/G5316] in it: for the glory of God did lighten [phōtizō/G5461] it, and The Lamb [is] The Light [lychnos/G3088] thereof. 24 And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in The Light [phōs/G5457] of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honour into it.].

Matthew 13:41-43 The Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; 42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 43 Then shall the righteous shine forth [a derivative of lampō/G2989] as the Sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

[Consider the Sun and Light aspect in light of Psalm 84:11-12 “For The LORD God [is] a Sun [Shemesh / H8121] and Shield: the LORD will give grace and glory: no good [thing] will He withhold from them that walk uprightly. 12 O LORD of hosts, blessed [is] the man that trusteth in Thee.” –AND– Malachi 4:1-3 “For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch. 2 But unto you that fear My Name shall The Sun [Shemesh / H8121] of Righteousness arise with healing in His wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall. 3 And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall do [this], saith the LORD of hosts.”].

Song of Solomon 6:10 Who [is] she [that] looketh forth as The Morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, [and] terrible as [an army] with banners?

Daniel 12:1-3 And at that time shall Michael stand up, the Great Prince which standeth for the children of Thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation [even] to that same time: and at that time Thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. 2 And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame [and] everlasting contempt. 3 And they that be wise shall shine [zahar/H2094] as the brightness [zohar/H2096] of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.

Psalm 104:4 Who maketh His angels spirits; His ministers a flaming fire [‘esh/H784].

Hebrews 1:5-8 For unto which of the angels said He at any time, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee? And again, I will be to Him a Father, and He shall be to Me a Son? 6 And again, when He bringeth in the Firstbegotten into the world, He saith, And let all the angels of God worship Him. 7 And of the angels He saith, Who maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame [phlox/G5395] of fire [pyr/G4442]. 8 But unto the Son [He saith], Thy throne, O God, [is] for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness [is] the sceptre of Thy kingdom.

Obadiah 1:15-18 For the day of the LORD [is] near upon all the heathen: as thou hast done, it shall be done unto thee: thy reward shall return upon thine own head. 16 For as ye have drunk upon My holy mountain, [so] shall all the heathen drink continually, yea, they shall drink, and they shall swallow down, and they shall be as though they had not been. 17 But upon Mount Zion shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; and The House of Jacob shall possess their possessions. 18 And The House of Jacob shall be a fire [‘esh/H784], and The House of Joseph a flame [lehabah/H3852], and the house of Esau for stubble, and they shall kindle in them, and devour them; and there shall not be [any] remaining of the house of Esau; for the LORD hath spoken [it].  

[Consider the connection between the passage above and this one: Isaiah 10:16-17 as it relates to the Lord Jesus Christ: “Therefore shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send among His fat ones leanness; and under His glory He shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire [‘esh / H784]. 17 And The Light [‘owr / H216] of Israel shall be for a fire [‘esh/H784], and His Holy One for a flame [lehabah/H3852]“].

D. The Gospel And The Law, Even The Whole Counsel Of God (The Entirety Of The Bible), is Light

Psalm 119:103-105 I have not departed from THY JUDGMENTS: for Thou hast taught me. 103 How sweet are THY WORDS unto my taste! [yea, sweeter] than honey to my mouth! 104 Through THY PRECEPTS I get understanding: therefore I hate every false way. 105 Thy word [is] a lamp [niyr/H5216] unto my feet, and a light [‘owr/H216] unto my path.

Psalm 119:129-131 THY TESTIMONIES [are] wonderful: therefore doth my soul keep them. 130 The entrance of Thy Words giveth light [‘owr/H215]; it giveth understanding unto the simple. 131 I opened my mouth, and panted: for I longed for THY COMMANDMNETS.

Proverbs 6:20-23 My son, keep THY FATHER’S COMMANDMENTS, and forsake not THE LAW OF THY MOTHER: 21 Bind them continually upon thine heart, [and] tie them about thy neck. 22 When Thou goest, it shall lead Thee; when Thou sleepest, it shall keep Thee; and [when] Thou awakest, it shall talk with Thee. 23 For the commandment [is] a lamp [niyr / H5216]; and the law [is] light [‘owr / H216]; and reproofs of instruction [are] the way of life:

Isaiah 8:20 To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, [it is] because [there is] no light [shachar / H7837] in them.

2 Peter 1:19 We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light [lychnos / G3088] that shineth in a dark place, until The Day dawn, and The Day Star [literally, Phōsphoros; Light-Bearer/Bringer/ Giver; G5459] arise in your hearts: 20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake [as they were] moved by the Holy Ghost.

2 Corinthians 4:3-6 But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost: 4 In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest The Light [phōtismos/G5462] of the glorious Gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them. 5 For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake. 6 For God, who commanded The Light [phōs / G5457] to shine [lampō / G2989] out of darkness, hath shined [lampō / G2989] in our hearts, to [give] the Light [phōtismos / G5462] of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.

2 Timothy 1:10 But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light [phōtizō / G5461] through the Gospel:

Clearly all scripture, law and Gospel, abrogated (service as a type only) and unabrogated (the commandments and instruction for us today), are a light and a lamp to quickened souls. Therefore, we would do well to heed 2 Timothy 3:14-17 “But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned [them]; 15 And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16 ALL SCRIPTURE [is] given by inspiration of God [LIT. all scripture is God-Breathed, theopneustos], and [is] profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.”

E. Light, Especially A Flaming Or Burning Light, Is A Type Of Divine Judgment.

Isaiah 10:16-19 Therefore shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send among His fat ones leanness; and under His glory He shall kindle a burning like the burning of a fire [‘esh/H784]. 17 And The Light [‘owr/H216] of Israel shall be for a fire [‘esh/H784], and His Holy One for a flame [lehabah/H3852]: and it shall burn and devour his thorns and his briers in one day; 18 And shall consume the glory of his forest, and of his fruitful field, both soul and body: and they shall be as when a standardbearer fainteth. 19 And the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, that a child may write them..

Obadiah 1:15-18 For the day of the LORD [is] near upon all the heathen: as thou hast done, it shall be done unto thee: thy reward shall return upon thine own head. 16 For as ye have drunk upon My holy mountain, [so] shall all the heathen drink continually, yea, they shall drink, and they shall swallow down, and they shall be as though they had not been. 17 But upon Mount Zion shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; and The House of Jacob shall possess their possessions. 18 And The House of Jacob shall be a fire [‘esh/H784], and The House of Joseph a flame [lehabah/H3852], and the house of Esau for stubble, and they shall kindle in them, and devour them; and there shall not be [any] remaining of the house of Esau; for the LORD hath spoken [it].

Psalm 105:23-25, 32 Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham. 24 And He increased His people greatly; and made them stronger than their enemies. 25 He turned their heart to hate His people, to deal subtilly with His servants. … 32 He gave them hail for rain, [and] flaming [lehabah/H3852] fire [‘esh/H784] in their land.

Isaiah 5:24-25 Therefore as the fire [‘esh/H784] devoureth the stubble, and the the flame [lehabah/H3852] consumeth the chaff, [so] their root shall be as rottenness, and their blossom shall go up as dust: because they have cast away the law of the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel. 25 Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled against His people, and He hath stretched forth His hand against them, and hath smitten them: and the hills did tremble, and their carcases [were] torn in the midst of the streets. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His Hand [is] stretched out still.

Isaiah 66:14-16 And when ye see [this], your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like an herb: and The Hand of the LORD shall be known toward His servants, and [His] indignation toward His enemies. 15 For, behold, The LORD will come with fire [‘esh/H784], and with His chariots like a whirlwind, to render His anger with fury, and His rebuke with flames [labah/H3851] of fire [‘esh/H784]. 16 For by fire [‘esh/H784] and by His sword will the LORD plead with all flesh: and the slain of the LORD shall be many.

Isaiah 29:5-7 Moreover the multitude of thy strangers shall be like small dust, and the multitude of the terrible ones [shall be] as chaff that passeth away: yea, it shall be at an instant suddenly. 6 Thou shalt be visited of the LORD of hosts with thunder, and with earthquake, and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame [labah/H3851] of a devouring fire [‘esh/H784]. 7 And the multitude of all the nations that fight against Ariel, even all that fight against her and her munition, and that distress her, shall be as a dream of a night vision.

Isaiah 30:30 And the LORD shall cause His glorious Voice to be heard, and shall shew the lighting down of His Arm, with the indignation of [His] anger, and [with] the flame [labah/H3851] of a devouring fire [‘esh/H784], [with] scattering, and tempest, and hailstones.

2 Thessalonians 1:7-10 And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, 8 In flaming [phlox/G5395] fire [pyr/G4442] taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: 9 Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power; 10 When He shall come to be glorified in His saints, and to be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony among you was believed ) in that day.

F. Light, Especially A Flaming Or Burning Light, Is A Type Of Divine Sacrifice (Which Incorporates Judgment), And Thus, Typifies Divine Salvation.

Judges 13:15-23 And Manoah said unto The Angel of the LORD, I pray thee, let us detain Thee, until we shall have made ready a kid for Thee. 16 And The Angel of the LORD said unto Manoah, Though thou detain Me, I will not eat of thy bread: and if thou wilt offer a burnt offering, thou must offer it unto the LORD. For Manoah knew not that he [was] an Angel of the LORD. 17 And Manoah said unto The Angel of the LORD, What [is] thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour? 18 And The angel of the LORD said unto him, Why askest thou thus after My Name, seeing it [is] Secret [Wonderful]? [Note: See Isaiah 9:6 wherein Wonderful shares the same Hebrew root]. 19 So Manoah took a kid with a meat offering, and offered [it] upon a rock unto the LORD: and [The Angel] did wondrously; and Manoah and his wife looked on. 20 For it came to pass, when the flame [labah/H3851] went up toward heaven from off the altar, that The Angel of the LORD ascended in the flame [labah/H3851] of the altar. And Manoah and his wife looked on [it], and fell on their faces to the ground. 21 But The Angel of the LORD did no more appear to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he [was] an Angel of the LORD. 22 And Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God. 23 But his wife said unto him, If the LORD were pleased to kill us, He would not have received a burnt offering and a meat offering at our hands, neither would He have shewed us all these [things], nor would as at this time have told us [such things] as these.

Isaiah 43:1-5 But now thus saith the LORD that created thee, O Jacob, and He that formed thee, O Israel, Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have called [thee] by thy name; thou [art] mine. 2 When thou passest through the waters, I [will be] with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou walkest through the fire [‘esh/H784] thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame [lehabah/H3852] kindle upon thee. 3 For I [am] the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt [for] thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. 4 Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life. 5 Fear not: for I [am] with thee: I will bring thy Seed from the east, and gather thee from the west; 6 I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the ends of the earth; 7 [Even] every one that is called by My Name: for I have created Him for My glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.

Matthew 6:22-23 The light [lychnos; G3088] of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light [phōteinos; G5460]. 23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light [phōs / G5457] that is in thee be darkness, how great [is] that darkness!

Luke 11:33-36 No man, when he hath lighted a candle [lychnos; G3088], putteth [it] in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light [pheggos / G5538]. 34 The light [lychnos; G3088] of the body is the eye: therefore when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light [phōteinos; G5460]; but when [thine eye] is evil, thy body also [is] full of darkness. 35 Take heed therefore that the light [phōs / G5457] which is in thee be not darkness. 36 If thy whole body therefore [be] full of light [phōteinos; G5460], having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light [phōteinos; G5460], as when the bright shining [astrapē / G796] of a candle [lychnos; G3088] doth give thee light [pheggos / G5538].

G. Light Relates to the Spirit of Man, Even As A Candle That Burns Either Eternally Or Is Snuffed Out

1. Light as it relates to the breath, or spirit, within each of us which pertains to our physical life (until we breathe our last breath):

Proverbs 20:27 The spirit [nĕshamah/H5397] of man [is] the candle [niyr/H5216] of the LORD, searching all the inward parts of the belly.

Genesis 2:7 And the LORD God formed man [of] the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath [nĕshamah/H5397] of life; and man became a living soul.

[Job 12:9-10 KJV] 9 Who knoweth not in all these that the hand of the LORD hath wrought this? 10 In whose hand [is] the soul [nephesh/H5315] of every living thing, and the breath [ruwach/H7307] of all mankind.

Job 33:4 The Spirit [ruwach/H7307] of God hath made me, and the breath [nĕshamah/H5397] of the Almighty hath given me life.

Job 32:8 But [there is] a spirit [ruwach/H7307] in man: and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding.

1 Corinthians 2:11 For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.

Job 34:14-15 If He set His heart upon man, [if] He gather unto Himself His spirit [ruwach/H7307] and His breath [nĕshamah/H5397]; 15 All flesh shall perish together, and man shall turn again unto dust.

Isaiah 42:5 Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath [nĕshamah/H5397] unto the people upon it, and spirit [ruwach/H7307] to them that walk therein.

Isaiah 57:15-17 For thus saith the High and Lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose Name [is] Holy; I dwell in the high and holy [place], with Him also [that is] of a contrite and humble spirit [ruwach/H7307], to revive the spirit [ruwach/H7307] of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones. 16 For I will not contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth: for the spirit [ruwach/H7307] should fail before me, and the souls [nĕshamah/H5397] [which] I have made. 17 For the iniquity of His covetousness was I wroth, and smote Him: I hid Me, and was wroth, and He went on frowardly in the way of his heart. 18 I have seen His ways, and will Heal him: I will lead Him also, and restore comforts unto Him and to His mourners. 19 I create the fruit of the lips; Peace, peace to [him that is] far off, and to [him that is] near, saith the LORD; and I will heal Him.

2. Light as it relates to either life (particularly, eternal life) or death (particularly, the second death, eternal damnation)

Proverbs 31:18 She perceiveth that her merchandise [is] good: her candle [niyr/H5216] goeth not out by night.

Proverbs 13:9 The light [‘owr/H216] of the righteous rejoiceth: but the candle [niyr/H5216] of the wicked shall be put out.

Job 18:5-6 Yea, the light [‘owr/H216] of the wicked shall be put out, and the spark of his fire [‘esh/H784] shall not shine [nagahh/H5050]. 6 The light [‘owr/H216] shall be dark in his tabernacle, and his candle [niyr/H5216] shall be put out with him.

Job 21:17 How oft is the candle [niyr/H5216] of the wicked put out! and [how oft] cometh their destruction upon them! [God] distributeth sorrows in his anger.

3. The word light (e.g. lamps, candle, fire) as it relates to the word eye, as it relates to the word spirit.

Proverbs 5:21 For the ways of man [are] before THE EYES OF THE LORD, and he pondereth all his goings.

Proverbs 15:3 THE EYES OF THE LORD LORD [are] in every place, beholding the evil and the good.

Hebrews 4:12-13 For the word of God [is] quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and [is] a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. 13 Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in His sight: but all things [are] naked and opened unto THE EYES [ophthalmos/G3788] of Him with whom we have to do.

Proverbs 20:27 The spirit [nĕshamah/H5397] of man [is] the candle [niyr/H5216] of the LORD, searching all the inward parts of the belly.

Revelation 5:6 And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and SEVEN EYES [ophthalmos/G3788], which are THE SEVEN SPIRITS OF GOD [i.e. THE HOLY SPIRIT] sent forth into all the earth.

Revelation 4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and [there were] SEVEN LAMPS OF FIRE burning before the throne, which are THE SEVEN SPIRITS OF GOD [i.e. THE HOLY SPIRIT].

Zechariah 3:8-9 Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee: for they [are] men wondered at: for, behold, I will bring forth My Servant the BRANCH. 9 For behold The Stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon One Stone [shall be] SEVEN EYES: behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the LORD of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day

Notice how (1) candles, lamps, fires, flames, etc. emit light, (2) the eye receives the light emitted, and (3) it is in/through/by the spirit (whether of unsaved man, quickened man, or of God, depending on the context) that we can either perceive/comprehend The Light or be blind to it; receive The Light or reject it; love The Light or hate it; come to The Light or flee from it; manifest/declare the Light (in, and through, Christ, by the Holy Spirit) or seek to hide it, obscure it, or put it out altogether. Consider these related passages:

Matthew 6:22-23 The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. 23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great [is] that darkness!

Luke 11:33-36 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth [it] in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light. 34 The light of the body is the eye: therefore when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but when [thine eye] is evil, thy body also [is] full of darkness. 35 Take heed therefore that the light which is in thee be not darkness. 36 If thy whole body therefore [be] full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light, as when the bright shining of a candle doth give thee light.

John 4:23-24 The hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship Him. 24 God [is] a Spirit: and they that worship Him must worship [Him] in spirit and in truth.

If our spirit, typified by our eye, is quickened, being illuminated by the Holy Spirit, having received eternal Life, our eye will be single, whole, even simply focused on Christ and His truth after the inward man. However, if one’s spirit, typified by their eye, remains evil (dead in trespasses and sin, unquickened,  not being illuminated by the Spirit of God unto spiritual life), then whatever natural light they have in them is but utter darkness, and that natural candle, that natural light, will be snuffed out.

H. Associated Word Studies on Light 

An Interesting Resource: For a very interesting commentary on the different Greek words for light, see Trench’s Synonyms of the New Testament here: https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/trench/section.cfm?sectionID=46

Phōs; G5457; pronounced fō’s; is a neuter noun from an obsolete root verb (phao, which is, to shine or make manifest); it literally means light and is translated in the AV/KJV as light sixty-eight times and as fire twice. The two times that it is translated fire relates to a scenario wherein there was a spoken denial; a fact that is very important for the section below, because it further evidences that spiritual/scriptural Light (or lack thereof) is primarily declared, made manifest, via our words. It is our biblical testimony, witnessing, preaching, that reveals the Light of God, as evidenced by Philip with the Ethiopian Eunuch, Paul at Mars Hill, and other passages within the Bible wherein the lights of this world were not present long enough with the hearers for their walk [characxter, conduct, good works, etc.] to be a primary witness. So though our God-wrought good works likewise play a vital part in shining forth the Light of Christ, it is the declaration of Christ (His role as the representative and fulness of the Godhead bodily, His Person (God the Word incarnate), His Gospel (His finished salvific work on the cross particularly), His Kingdom (His people in and with Him), His law (the parcelled out spiritual food for them), His hatred, wrath, and judgment against His enemies, etc.) that most thoroughly makes manifest Light in this world. Given that Christ, who is The Light, is likewise the divine Logos, which (in English) is the divine Word, it makes sense that the Light is made manifest via the Word, and our light is manifested (primarily) via our scipturally faithful words. Now concerning the two fire/light passages, see:

Mark 14:54; 66-72 And Peter followed Him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire… 66 And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest: 67 And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth. 68 But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what Thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew. 69 And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is [one] of them. 70 And he denied it again. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art [one] of them: for Thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth [thereto]. 71 But he began to curse and to swear, [saying], I know not this man of whom ye speak. 72 And the second time the cock crew. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto Him, Before the cock crow twice, Thou shalt deny me thrice. And when he thought thereon, he wept.

Luke 22:56-62 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with Him. 57 And he denied Him, saying, Woman, I know Him not. 58 And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not. 59 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this [fellow] also was with Him: for he is a Galilaean. 60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. 61 And The Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of The Lord, how he had said unto Him, Before the cock crow, Thou shalt deny me thrice. 62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.

Phōstēr; G5458; pronounced fō-stā’r; is a masculine noun derived from phōs / G5457 above. In the AV/KJV, it is translated seventeen times as appear; ten times as shine; twice as be seen; and once each as either seem or think. It means to bring forth, to shine or cause to shine, to shed light, to be bright or resplendent, to become evident, to be brought forth into the light, to come to view, to appear, and to appear to the mind, seem to one’s judgment or opinion. This word will be addressed further in the next section (section III) for the same reasons covered immediately above (when bringing the fire passages up).

Phōsphoros; G5459; pronounced fō-sfo’-ros; is an adjective derived from phōs / G5457 above and from the word pherō / G5342, which means to carry, to bear, to bring. Phōsphoros is found only once in the Bible and it is translated (metaphorically) as Day Star in the AV/KJV. Though it is a metaphoricaly accurate translation, nonentheless, the literal makes it abundantly clear all the more, that Christ is the aggregate of all that is deemed Light. He represents the Light of the Godhead; the Light of Himself as Jehovah the Anointed Saviour; the Light of His people (as He shines forth in, and through His elect body); and as The Word of God, through the Holy Spirit, He manifests the Light of His Gospel and Law (the entirety of the Holy Bible). This is powerfully evidenced by the sole passage that uses it, requoted for ease of review:

2 Peter 1:19 “We have also a more sure Word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light [lychnos / G3088] that shineth [phainō; G5316] in a dark place, until The Day dawn, and The Day Star [Phōsphoros / G5459] arise in your hearts: 20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake [as they were] MOVED [pherō / G5342] by the Holy Ghost.

Per the above passage, that word moved, being pherō / G5342, ties in with (1) Christ as the Phōsphoros; the Day Star, the Light-Bearer/Carrirer/ Bringer (the Phōs-pherō); (2) the word of God, Holy writ, which is also light, and which was brought forth / pherō’d; as (3) the Holy Spirit (who is also Light) moved / pherō’d holy men of God (4) who as part of the Body of Christ were, themselves, light through the Godhead, to (5) bring / pherō the Bible into physical existence (as both the spoken and written) word, and to make it manifest throughout the ages before men.

Many shun the use of the Greek and Hebrew; however, because of so many, many passages like the above, I consider it as scriptural super glue because it so clearly, powerfully, and effectively binds together the God-ordained, and God-chosen, words in a way that we, as mere men, can more easily comprehend. Yet, let there be no mistake about it, without light and knowledge being divinely gifted to us by the will of God the Father, in Christ, by the Holy Spirit, all of the Greek and Hebrew, and all of the studying possible in this lifetime, would avail us absolutely nothing.  We have light only when that Blessed Light shines upon us, illuminating us, causing us to shine forth that which is already being shined in, and through, us by Him. It is all of the Father, in Christ, by the Holy Spirit and let us never either think otherwise or forget it.

Phōteinos; G5460; is not really covered in this study, mainly, because I do not properly understand its use in light of certain other passages that I believe tie-in (like glue), but still do not have a firm grasp on how they do so. Phōteinos is pronounced fō-tā-no’s; is an adjective likewise derived from phōs / G5457. In the AV/KJV, it is translated thrice as full of light and once as bright. It pertains to that which is composed of light, full of light, well-lit, bright, etc.

Phōtizō; G5461; pronounced fō-tē’-zō; is a verb derived from phōs / G5457 above. In the AV/KJV, it is translated twice as each of the following: give light, bring to light, lighten, and enlighten; it is translated once each as light, illuminate, and make to see. It means to shed rays, to shine, shine upon, give light, to shine, to enlighten, light up, illumine, to bring to light, render evident, to cause something to exist and thus come to light and become clear to all, to enlighten, spiritually, imbue with saving knowledge, to instruct, to inform, teach, and to give understanding to.

Phōtismos; G5462; pronounced fō-tē-smo’s; is a masculine noun derived from phōtizō / G5461 above. In the AV/KJV, it is translated twice as light; it means illumination, brightness, and references that light associated with the process of enlightening someone or something; and is only found in 2 Corinthians 4:-6 (specifically, verses four and six).

Phainō; G5316; pronounced fī’-nō; is a verb that is formed via a prolongation of the base of phōs (G5457); as with many Greek nouns and verbs, they are simply variants of one another (and thus, closely related in meaning). In the AV/KJV, it is translated seventeen times as appear; ten times as shine; twice as be seen; and once each as either seem or think. It literally means to bring forth, to shine or cause to shine, to shed light, to be bright or resplendent, to become evident, to be brought forth into the light, to come to view, to appear, and to appear to the mind, seem to one’s judgment or opinion. This word will be addressed further in the next section (section III).

Pheggos; G5338; pronounced fe’n-gos; is not really covered in this study due to the difficulty connecting two of the three passages that use it to the rest of the passages included in the articlee. The connection is clear, but it is its relationship to the moon, that I do not fully grasp. Is the moon a type of the elect body of Christ as a whole? Is it a type of the elect body specifically as it brings the whole counsel of God? Is the moon a type of the law of God, whether it be the Bible in its entirety or the commandments specifically? I do not understand the use of the word moon (in both the Old and New testament) enough to speak on either it or pheggos in any definitive sense. However, it does derive from both phōs / G5457 and phtheggomai / G5350. This word phtheggomai (pronounced fthe’n-go-mī) means to give out a sound, noise or cry; or any sort of sound or voice, whether of man or of animal, or inanimate object as thunder, musical instruments, etc. In the AV/KJV, phtheggomai is translated  twice as speak and once as speaking [see Acts 4:18 and 2 Peter 2:16-18]. Phtheggomai ties-in with phēmi / G5346 (see below); pheggos, phtheggomai, and phēmi all relate to Light being revealed, manifested, declared, particularly via speech/words — this in itself points strongly to the Body of Christ but may also point to the whole counsel of God being proclaimed via the elect body. Pheggos is always translated as light in the AV/KJV, with a strong emphasis on light from either the moon (literally or metaphorically) or light from a candle/lamp; please see the passages wherein this word is found. Gven that the moon is called a her and it is shining its light, this may very well tie-in with the elect congregation of God or the scriptural declarations that come forth from her.

Matthew 24:23-28 Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here [is] Christ, or there; believe [it] not. 24 For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if [it were] possible, they shall deceive the very elect. 25 Behold, I have told you before. 26 Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, [he is] in the secret chambers; believe [it] not. 27 For as the lightning [astrapē / G796 cometh out of the east, and shineth [phainō / G5316] even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. 28 For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together. 29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light [pheggos / G5338], and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: 30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

Mark 13:24 But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light [pheggos / G5338],

Luke 11:33 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth [it] in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light [pheggos / G5338].

Lychnos; G3088; pronounced lü’kh-nos; is a masculine noun from the adjective leukos which also means light, bright, brilliant (but in the AV/KJV it is always translated as white found twenty-five times); lychnos is translated eight times as candle and six times as light in the AV/KJV. It literally means a lamp, candle, that is placed on a stand or candlestick; a portable lamp or other illuminator (literally or figuratively):—candle, light. 

Lampas; G2985; pronounced läm-pä’s; is a feminine noun derived from the verb lampō / G2989] (the next word down). It means a torch, flambeau, and/or a lamp whose flame is fed by oil. The AVKJV translates it as lamp seven times, torch once, and light once. Three particularly notable passages are:

Matthew 25:1-13 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps [lampas; G2985], and went forth to meet the bridegroom. 2 And five of them were wise, and five [were] foolish. 3 They that [were] foolish took their lamps [lampas; G2985], and took no oil with them: 4 But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps [lampas; G2985]. 5 While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. 6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. 7 Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps [lampas; G2985]. 8 And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps [lampas; G2985], are gone out. 9 But the wise answered, saying, [Not so]; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. 10 And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. 11 Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. 12 But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. 13 Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh.

Revelations 4:5 And round about the throne [were] four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold. 5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and [there were] seven lamps [lampas; G2985] of fire [pyr / G4442] burning before the throne, which are the Seven Spirits of God.

Revelations 8:10 And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp [lampas; G2985], and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters;

Lampros; G2986; pronounced läm-pro’s; is an adjective derived from lampas/G2985 above; in the AV/KJV it is translated twice as each of the following: bright, goodly, white,  and once as each of the following: gorgeous, gay, and clear. It means shining, brilliant, white, clear, trasnparent, splendid, magnificent, and/or radiant.

Lampō; G2989; pronounced lä’m-pō; is a primary verb translated in the AV/KJV as shine six times and give light once. It means to beam, i.e. radiate brilliancy; to shine; or to give light.

Astrapē; G796; pronounced ä-strä-pā; is a feminine noun derived from the verb astraptō/G797; and is translated as lightning eight times and light shining once in the AV/KJV. It literally means lightning and by analogy/extrapolation, glare, bright shining, shining light. It is found in the following passages:

Matthew 24:23-27 Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here [is] Christ, or there; believe [it] not. 24 For there shall arise false christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if [it were] possible, they shall deceive the very elect. 25 Behold, I have told you before. 26 Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, He is in the desert; go not forth: behold, [He is] in the secret chambers; believe [it] not. 27 For as the lightning [astrapē/G796] cometh out of the east, and shineth [phainō/G5316] even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

Matthew 28:1-3 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first [day] of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. 2 And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it. 3 His countenance was like lightning [astrapē/G796], and his raiment [endyma/G1742] white [leukos/G3022]  as snow:

Luke 10:17-18 And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through Thy Name. 18 And He said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning [astrapē/G796], fall from heaven.

[Note: Much worth of its own study but see in light of this pasage: John 12:27-33; John 16:5-33; Lamentation 2:1-7; Revelation 12:7-12; Isaiah 14:1-21, Ezekiel 28:11-19, etc. Also, note that the word beheld is theōreō/G2334 in the imperfect active indicative form which literally would be rendered I kept on beholding, or I habitually, even over and over again, beheld…. Therefore, this falling is something that the Lord routinely saw, beheld, perceived, and discernedeven anticipated fully].

Luke 11:36 If thy whole body therefore [be] full of light [phōteinos/g5460], having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light [phōteinos/g5460],, as when the bright shining [astrapē/G796] of a candle [lychnos/G3088] doth give thee light [phōtizō/G5461].

Luke 17:20-24 And when He was demanded of the Pharisees, when the Kingdom of God should come, He answered them and said, The Kingdom of God cometh not with observation: 21 Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the Kingdom of God is within you. 22 And He said unto the disciples, The days will come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not see [it]. 23 And they shall say to you, See here; or, see there: go not after [them], nor follow [them]. 24 For as the lightning [astrapē/G796], that lighteneth [astraptō/G797] out of the one [part] under heaven, shineth [lampō/G2989] unto the other [part] under heaven; so shall also the Son of man be in his day.

Revelation 4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings [astrapē/G796] and thunderings and voices: and [there were] Seven Lamps [lampas / G2985] of Fire [pyr / g4442] burning before the throne, which are the Seven Spirits of God.

Revelation 8:5 And the angel took the censer, and filled it with fire [pyr/G4442] of the altar, and cast [it] into the earth: and there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings [astrapē/G796], and an earthquake.

Revelation 11:19 And the Temple of God was opened in Heaven, and there was seen in His Temple the Ark of His Testament: and there were lightnings [astrapē/G796], and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

Revelation 16:17-19 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great Voice out of the Temple of Heaven, from the throne, saying, It is done. 18 And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings [astrapē/G796]; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, [and] so great. 19 And the Great City was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath.

Astraptō; G797; pronounced ä-strä’p-tō; is a verb derived from astēr/star/G792. It literally means to flash as lightning, to shine (as lightning), to lighten in a dazzling manner). In the AV/KJV it is translated as lighteneth in Luke 17:24 and shining in Luke 24:4.

Astēr; G792; pronounced ä-stā’r; is a masculine noun literally meaning star and is always translated as such in the AV/KJV; click on G792 to see all of the places wherein this word is found. Note the similarity between this word and the Hebrew word `Ashtoreth/H6253. It is believed by many that the following share the same ultimate (though unclear) origin: Astēr (Greek); Aphrodite (Greek); Astarte (Greek/Phoenician); Asdartu (Akkadian); Atargatis (Aramean); Athtart (Phoenician/Syrian/Canaanite); Ôstara (German); Ēastre/Ēostre (Old English/Scottish); Ishtar (Sumerian, Bayblonian, Assyrian, East Akkadian); Ashtoreth/Astaroth (Hebrew/Sidonian/Phoenician); Isis (Egyptian); Venus (Roman); etc.. Many (rightly or wrongly) point to Semiramis, the consort of Nimrod, as being the source.

Leukos; G3022; pronounced yü-ko’s is from the word luke/lýkē which means light. This adjective is always translated as white in the AV/KJV. It means light, bright, brilliant, brilliant from whiteness, white, dazzling white, dead whit, etc.Click G3022 to see the full list of passages wherein it is found.

‘Owr; H215; pronounced ōre; is a root verb translated 119 times as light in the AV/KJV; fourteen times as shine; five times as enlighten; and once each of the following: break of day  fire, give, glorious, and kindle. It literally meanst to be or become light, shine; to become bright; to become lit up or illuminated; to give light; lighten; make to shine.

Owr; H216; pronounced ōre; is a feminine noun from the verb with the same general spelling, ‘owr / H215; it is translated 114 times as light in the AV/KJV. It is likewise translated twice as day and once as each of the following: bright, clear, flood, herbs, lightning, morning, and sun. The word literally means light.

‘Esh; H784;  pronounced āsh ; is a feminine noun translated 373 times as fire and once as each of the following: burning, fiery, flaming,  and hot. The word literally means fire, flaming, hot, burning, fiery, etc.

Zahar; H2094; pronounced zä·har’ is a primitive root verb meaning to enlighten by caution, warn, admonish, teach; to shine or be bright; to send out light, be light. In the AV/KJV it is translated eighteen times as warn,, twice as admonish, and once as both teach and shine.

Zohar; H2096; pronounced zō’·har’; it is a masculine noun stemming from zahar/H2094 above. It means, and is translated in the AV/KJV as brightness. It also means shining, brilliancy.

Lahab; H3851; pronounced lah’·hav; is a masculine noun from an unused root meaning to gleam. Lahab means the same as the above and is translated as flame eight times, blade twice, and glittering once in the AV/KJV.

Lehabah; H3852; pronounced leh·ä·vä’; is a feminine noun from lahab / H3851. Lehabah and lahab mean the same thing: flame, flaming, spearhead or any other tip/point of a weapon (especially a glittering, like fire, steel one). In the AV/KJV, Lehabah is translated thirteen times as flame, five times as flaming, and once as head.

Nagahh; H5050; pronounced nä·gah’; is a primitive root verb meaning to shine, enlighten, or cause to shine. In the AV/KJV, it is translated as shine four times and enlighten twice.

Nogahh; H5051; pronounced nō’·gah; is a feminine noun derived from nagahh/H5050, meaning brightness, brilliance, shining, or clear shining. In the AV/KJV, it is translated as brightness eleven times; shining six times, and both bright and light once each.

Niyr; H5216; pronounced nēr; is a masculine noun meaning lamp. In the AV/KJV, it is translated as lamp thirty-five times, candle nine times, and light four times. It means (in the sense of that which gleams or glistens) a lamp (i.e. the burner) or light (lit. or fig.), thus, a candle, lamp, light.

This masculine noun derives from the Hebrew primitive root verb [niyr /H5214], spelled and pronounced the same way, but meaning to break up, freshly plough or till. In the two verses wherein it is found in the AV/KJV, it is translated as break up. 

Jeremiah 4:1-4 If thou wilt return, O Israel, saith the LORD, return unto Me: and if thou wilt put away thine abominations out of My sight, then shalt thou not remove. 2 And thou shalt swear, The LORD liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in Him, and in Him shall they glory. 3 For thus saith the LORD to the men of Judah and Jerusalem, Break up [niyr/H5214] your fallow ground, and sow not among thorns. 4 Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem: lest My fury come forth like fire [‘esh/H784], and burn that none can quench [it], because of the evil of your doings.

Hosea 10:12 Sow to yourselves in righteousness, reap in mercy; Break up [niyr /H5214] your fallow ground: for [it is] time to seek the LORD, till he come and rain righteousness upon you.

Note: It is said that niyr/H5216 ties into niyr/H5214 in the sense that a fresh furrow gleams. Spiritually, he whose lamp has the oil of the Spirit of God fueling it, burning (in Christ) as spiritual light, is one whose heart has been divinely tilled, ploughed, broken up. Consider:

Mark 4:20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive [it], and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.

Psalm 34:18 The LORD [is] nigh unto them that are of a broken heart; and saveth such as be of a contrite spirit.

Ezekiel 36:33-36 Thus saith the Lord GOD; In the day that I shall have cleansed you from all your iniquities I will also cause [you] to dwell in the cities, and the wastes shall be builded. 34 And the desolate land shall be tilled, whereas it lay desolate in the sight of all that passed by. 35 And they shall say, This land that was desolate is become like the garden of Eden; and the waste and desolate and ruined cities [are become] fenced, [and] are inhabited. 36 Then the heathen that are left round about you shall know that I the LORD build the ruined [places, and] plant that that was desolate: I the LORD have spoken [it], and I will do [it].

Proverbs 12:11 He that tilleth his land shall be satisfied with Bread: but he that followeth vain [persons is] void of understanding.

Proverbs 28:19 He that tilleth his land shall have plenty of Bread: but he that followeth after vain [persons] shall have poverty enough.

Ezekiel 36:8-12 But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My people of Israel; for they are at hand to come. 9 For, behold, I [am] for you, and I will turn unto you, and ye shall be tilled and sown: 10 And I will multiply men upon you, all The House of Israel, [even] all of it: and the cities shall be inhabited, and the wastes shall be builded: 11 And I will multiply upon you man and beast; and they shall increase and bring fruit: and I will settle you after your old estates, and will do better [unto you] than at your beginnings: and ye shall know that I [am] the LORD. 12 Yea, I will cause men to walk upon you, [even] My people Israel; and they shall possess thee, and thou shalt be their inheritance, and thou shalt no more henceforth bereave them [of men].

Shachar; H7837; pronounced shakh’·ar; is a masculine noun meaning dawn. In the AV/KJV, it is translated as morning twelve times, day six times, early twice, and once as each of the following: dayspring, light, riseth, and Shahar. Click H7837 for a list of all of the passages wherein it is found. Shachar stems from a primitive root verb (shachar/H7836/pronounced shä·khar’) meaning to seek, seek earnestly, seek early, or to look early and/or diligently for.

Continued in Part Two

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