A Biblical Look At Wine
(fermented grape juice)
In Light Of The Atoning Work of Christ
By Curt Wildy
Many of God’s people stand against the consumption of “fermented wine” or “leavened wine,” even in moderation. They argue, amongst other things, that “wine is leavened “and therefore it could not be used in the Old Testament sacrifices nor could God’s blessings be upon its consumption. Although the purpose of this article is not to directly challenge this stance, the end result may very well be the overthrowing of it in the minds of many. My aim is not so much to refute error but to extol Truth, for the good wine points us to the Lord who is Truth. We must be attuned to Him; We must never call good what He calls evil and we must never call evil what He calls good.
I aim to prove that the good and perfect wine that typifies the atoning blood of Christ must be the product of the fully fermented juice of the fruit of the (grape) vine. The entire nature of the fruit, the wine-making process, and the qualities of the finished product all point to the propitiatory work of Christ. In all things, Christ must be the focus — He must have all the honour and preeminence. We must declare, as the Psalmist “Not unto us, O LORD, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, for thy mercy, and for thy truth’s sake” (Psalm 115:1).
Unlike most of my previous articles, I will provide the big picture first and then set out to prove the individual points. This way, if you already know these truths and their proof texts, or have a general feel for it, you do not need to wade through everything in the series to get to the heart of the matter.
Fermented Grape Juice (Wine) Typifies The Atonement
The Blood Of The Grape
The pure (unadulterated and unfermented) juice from the fruit of the grape was commonly called the blood of the grape. This blood typifies the intrinsically pure nature of Christ who is our Life (for the life is in the blood). Keep in mind that we are not yet talking about the atoning blood, at least not in its fullest sense. We are simply looking at blood in relation to the unfermented juice for a moment, as it exists within the confines of the skin of the grape.
On the outer skin of naturally growing grapes, you will find Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other types of yeast. Not all leavening agents (leaven) can be classified as yeast but all yeasts are leavening agents. The skin of the grape typifies the human body of Christ. The leaven on the skin of the grape typifies the sin that was “made to meet” on Him and that He bore in His own body for 1 Peter 2:24 speaks of the Lord Jesus “Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.“
Christ Made (Our) Sin And Punished On Our Behalf
To make wine, you crush the grape and let the juice flow. When the juice comes into contact with the leaven on the skin, it becomes leavened, it starts to become something it was not. During the fermentation process, the sugar in the juice begins to turn into alcohol/ethanol (though not completely). This crushing and fermenting is a picture of Christ being crushed as He was made sin for His elect. He, in His purity, was willingly made to bear our iniquity. As the leaven interacts with the pure juice of the grape, so did our sin interact with his humanity as He bore them in His own body — yet without sin or sinning of Himself. His battered and bloody body evidenced His immense physical suffering; likewise, the physical agony of the cross is beyond imagination. However, it was the leaven, our leaven, meeting upon Him that tormented Him beyond measure. Though the sins of His elect were their own and none of His (for He is the Lamb without spot or blemish), in light of His eternal vital union with us, He made our sins His own. He stood in our stead and spoke of our sins and foolishnesses as His very own. This is what caused Him to cry out in Psalm 69:1-11 (Messianically):
Psalm 69:1 To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, [A Psalm] of David. Save me, O God; for the waters are come in unto [my] soul. I sink in deep mire, where [there is] no standing: I am come into deep waters, where the floods overflow me. 3 I am weary of my crying: my throat is dried: mine eyes fail while I wait for my God. 4 They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of mine head: they that would destroy me, [being] mine enemies wrongfully, are mighty: then I restored [that] which I took not away. 5 O God, thou knowest my foolishness; and my sins are not hid from thee. 6 Let not them that wait on thee, O Lord GOD of hosts, be ashamed for my sake: let not those that seek thee be confounded for my sake, O God of Israel. 7 Because for thy sake I have borne reproach; shame hath covered my face. 8 I am become a stranger unto my brethren, and an alien unto my mother’s children. 9 For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up; and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me. 10 When I wept, [and chastened] my soul with fasting, that was to my reproach. 11 I made sackcloth also my garment; and I became a proverb to them. 12 They that sit in the gate speak against me; and I [was] the song of the drunkards. 13 But as for me, my prayer [is] unto thee, O LORD, [in] an acceptable time: O God, in the multitude of thy mercy hear me, in the truth of thy salvation. 14 Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink: let me be delivered from them that hate me, and out of the deep waters. 15 Let not the waterflood overflow me, neither let the deep swallow me up, and let not the pit shut her mouth upon me….17 And hide not thy face from thy servant; for I am in trouble: hear me speedily…20 Reproach hath broken my heart; and I am full of heaviness: and I looked [for some] to take pity, but [there was] none; and for comforters, but I found none. 21 They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.
Isaiah 53 speaks of our suffering saviour as the One who “hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. 5 But he [was] wounded for our transgressions, [he was] bruised [daka’; H1792; דכא ‘daw-kaw’; to be crushed] for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace [was] upon him; and with his stripes we are healed….the LORD hath laid [paga‘ פגע H06293; paw-gah’; made to meet / caused to light upon] on him the iniquity of us all….it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put [him] to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see [his] seed, he shall prolong [his] days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.“
The crushing of the grape as the leaven is mixed with the blood of it – what a powerful picture this is. It ought to make us love and honour our Lord all the more. If the power of it has been brought home to our hearts and minds, it will… and it will also make us tremble before Him in fear and thanksgiving.
Fermentation: A Picture Of Wrath And Purification Unto Satisfaction
When the leaven interacts with the juice, fermentation begins. As we will see in later parts, some of the Hebrew words for wine have as their direct root, words pertaining to fermentation. However, these words also have meanings related to being crushed, heated, boiled, troubled, in turmoil, etc. At least one word incorporates in its meaning fire, flames, and wrath. The fermentation process typifies the sufferings of Christ under the judgment of the Father as He stood in our stead. When you think of the actual fermentation process, think of our dear Lord being spiritually crushed, pressed beyond measure, and burned by the fiery wrath of God until all of our sins were paid for and utterly done away with. The wrath of God did not cease upon Christ until the holy law of God was completely satisfied. The wrath ceased because the sin ceased; purity was ushered in. Though we sorrow over our Lord’s immense sufferings we are thankful for being spared the eternality of hellfire ourselves. We are thankful for the great love with which He loved us, a loved that caused Him to willingly obey His heavenly Father even unto death, all unto His praise and unto our salvation. Thank God for the Wine!
The Cloud Of Our Sin Is Nowhere To Be Found
As the fermentation process takes place, carbon dioxide is released. When we breathe in air [aer; αηρ; G109; ah-ayr’; from aemi (to breathe unconsciously/respire], we are taking in a new breath. It typifies taking in living breath or the living Spirit. The word spirit [pneuma; πνευμα; G4151; pnyoo’-mah] is derived from the Greek word pneo [πνεω; G4154; pneh’-o] which means to breathe. When, by God’s grace, we take in the clean Spirit of God, our unclean spirit is released (exhaled/sent forth out of us). When we exhale physically, we are releasing carbon dioxide which is toxic to our system (thus removing the evil breath from our bodies). Not only does this process typify the indwelling of the Holy Spirit and the removal of our unclean spirit (the old man crucified with Christ, not to be confused with our sinful flesh) but in the sense of a recurring process, inhaling and exhaling typifies the manifestation of the Spirit of Christ in our lives as we receive life from Him (bearing fruit) and expel sin (crucifying the flesh as He enables). Just as there is a constant inhaling and exhaling when there is physical life, there is a constant working of the Holy Spirit (wherein we partake of life and forsake darkness — to one degree or another) when there is spiritual life.
This same carbon dioxide that we exhale is the very same gas released during the fermentation process. The bad gas/breath/spirit is released, leaving only the wine. This is why you cannot put new wine in old bottles; the gas from the fermentation process will cause the old bottles to expand and burst. New bottles will expand and grow with the gas until it is released. When Christ endured the wrath of God on behalf of His bride, He did it to such a degree that all of the carbon dioxide, all of our sin, was done away with; inhabiting the wine no more. Where is this carbon dioxide now? It is gone! For “As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us” (Psalm 103:12); “…the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and [there shall be] none; and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found: for [the LORD] will pardon them whom [He] reserves” (Jeremiah 50:20). You are more likely to walk outside and identify the carbon dioxide released from a bottle of wine made two thousand years ago than you are to identify the sin in a believer (after the inner man that is), for that sin has been utterly put away by the blood (suffering atonement) of Christ.
As an aside, I like to think of Tobias Crisp and his words on the sin manifested in our daily lives. As we work out our salvation in this world, we see sin in us and about us. We know our own natural thoughts, intents, emotions, and we know that there is nothing righteous about them. We see this in ourselves and in our brethren and we know that “if we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us” (1 John 1:8). Yet, after the inner man, we truly have no sin for “whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God” (1 John 3:9). But how does God see us? Does He see us as having sin (as we see ourselves having it) or does He see us after the inner man…without sin? I believe that the Bible is clear that He sees us — right now — as being perfectly sinless, righteous, and holy, even as His Son is such, for “Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment: because as He is, so are we in this world” (1 John 4:17).
Yet many of us ask, why do we still see our sins if all has been put away and forgotten by God. Mr. Crisp gave what I believe is an excellent analogy. He likened our sins to debts listed on a ledger. Though the ledger shows all such debts with a line through them (indicating that they have all been paid off), the entries themselves remain legible. This is for us to identify the individual instances of debt; absorb the immensity of what a great, total debt we owed; help us to see what great payment was necessary to cover such debt; and to help us to realise that line by line — nothing of our debt remains. God allows us to see in this life the sins He has already put away so that we may know who and what we are by nature and so that we can see Who and What He is by nature — and praise Him all the more for it. When we see our great debt, our sin, as being like the carbon dioxide released from the wine (completely released and soon nowhere to be found) — what a great joy and comfort it is to our often troubled souls.
Sin, Itself, Put To Death
Another excellent result of the fermentation process is that it kills the leaven. Unless the process has been interrupted, or new leavening agents are purposely introduced (e.g. for “secondary fermentation” purposes to reinvigorate poor wine, to implement “stuck fermentation” restart techniques, etc.), wine will have no live leaven in it. Thus wine, itself, is not leavened. Grape juice is leavened to make wine — but wine is not leavened (as the majority of rabbinical testimony will attest).
The same leaven that caused the death of so much of the sugar in the grape juice dies off itself by the alcohol created during the fermentation process. The fermentation process creates an environment that, once complete, kills the leavening organisms. I believe that this is analogous to the fact that, though sin killed the natural sweetness and goodness of humanity, the alcohol of rejoicing found in the atoning work of Christ killed off the sin forever, preserving the remnant of sweetness that survives). This likewise typifies the fact that our sins, borne by our Lord, were done away with during the atonement. He destroyed the leaven, the sin, to where there is no sin whatsoever — all has been dealt with.
We read in:
Romans 6:1-6 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein? 3 Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? 4 Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. 5 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also [in the likeness] of [his] resurrection: 6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with [him], that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.
I emphasised the words relating to baptism because, as I aim to show below in a later part, one of the root words from whence a Hebrew word for (intoxicating) red wine derives actually means to smear or cover with red asphalt (this being a type of the believers’ baptism in the blood of Christ).
Drinking The Dregs
Some may argue that though the leaven is dead, the dead leaven remains in the wine. It is true that when making wine, the dead leaven initially remains. However, part of the wine-making process involves the fining/filtration process that removes the dregs and other unwanted material; it is the dregs that contain the dead leaven. Thus, when wine is made and handled properly, there will be very little (if any) dead leaven in it. From a biblical and spiritual point of view, however, consider the following passages:
Psalm 75:8 For in the hand of the LORD [there is] a cup, and the wine is red; it is full of mixture; and he poureth out of the same: but the dregs thereof, all the wicked of the earth shall wring [them] out, [and] drink [them]. 9 But I will declare for ever; I will sing praises to the God of Jacob. 10 All the horns of the wicked also will I cut off; [but] the horns of the righteous shall be exalted.
Isaiah 51:17 Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem, which hast drunk at the hand of the LORD the cup of his fury; thou hast drunken the dregs of the cup of trembling, [and] wrung [them] out. 18 [There is] none to guide her among all the sons [whom] she hath brought forth; neither [is there any] that taketh her by the hand of all the sons [that] she hath brought up. 19 These two [things] are come unto thee; who shall be sorry for thee? desolation, and destruction, and the famine, and the sword: by whom shall I comfort thee? 20 Thy sons have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets, as a wild bull in a net: they are full of the fury of the LORD, the rebuke of thy God. 21 Therefore hear now this, thou afflicted, and drunken, but not with wine: 22 Thus saith thy Lord the LORD, and thy God [that] pleadeth the cause of his people, Behold, I have taken out of thine hand the cup of trembling, [even] the dregs of the cup of my fury; thou shalt no more drink it again: 23 But I will put it into the hand of them that afflict thee; which have said to thy soul, Bow down, that we may go over: and thou hast laid thy body as the ground, and as the street, to them that went over.
The Lord Jesus Christ filtered the wine by drinking the cup of fury and its dregs for us in its totality; though He drank it alone and we played no part in it, vicariously we drank it in Him. Not of ourselves did we drink it, but through vital and precious union with Him.
Romans 6:1 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein? 3 Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? 4 Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. 5 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also [in the likeness] of [his] resurrection: 6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with [him], that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.
Matthew 20:20 Then came to him the mother of Zebedee’s children with her sons, worshipping [him], and desiring a certain thing of him. 21 And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom. But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able. 23 And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but [it shall be given to them] for whom it is prepared of my Father.
Galatians 2:20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.
Colossians 2:8 Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ. 9 For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. 10 And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power: 11 In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ: 12 Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with [him] through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead. 13 And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses;
In the same manner that we were crucified with Him, and baptised with Him, so drank we with Him of the cup and as He was mersed, baptised, with the wrath of God.
The Body And Consistency Of The Wine
According to one source:
“The ability of yeast cells to convert sugar into Carbon dioxide and Alcohol is down to enzymes. Several enzymes are involved each does its step in the process. The final step is Zymase reduction which takes the end product of the other enzymes (acetaldehyde/glycerol), and turns this into good old ethyl alcohol. ….high concentrations [of] alcohol actually destroys enzymes and kills the yeast cell. Different strains of yeast can tolerate different concentrations of alcohol.. Brewers yeast cannot withstand much beyond 5 or 6% Alcohol by volume. Wine yeast is more tolerant at a range of 10-15%. Specially cultured strains of yeast with the correct environment can withstand alcohol levels up to 21% alcohol.“
From a spiritual point of view, we can rest assured knowing that even the worst of sins, the most specially cultured strains of yeast, have been killed as it pertains to God’s elect. I do not know for sure if the 21% mentioned above is agreed upon by all experts, but if it is, it causes me to think of :
Daniel 10:13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.
It is important to note that the more powerful (i.e. alcohol-tolerant) yeasts allow for higher alcohol levels in the wine since they can survive in such an environment for a longer period of time before dying out. The higher the alcohol percentage, the heavier/stronger/thicker the body of the wine will be. In other words, higher alcohol content usually results in a fuller body. According to another source:
“Body refers to the substance of a wine. One indication of a wine’s body is its color – the deeper the color, the fuller the body. A wine’s body is measured by swirling it around the glass and seeing how long it takes the wine to flow down the sides. Full-bodied wines are heavy and come down the sides of the glass in sheets. Medium-bodied wines are less thick and break into “legs” (lines of colorless glycerin) as they flow down the sides. Light-bodied wines are not heavy and will not cling to the sides of the glass when swirled.”
There is a body associated with the wine of Christ; there is a full and mighty body, one that is perfectly cohesive and fit together in Christ. Many say that the color of the wine also goes into determining the body, often the darker it is, the fuller. Isn’t the color of the wine of Christ very red indeed, like scarlet, being blood red? Is there a wine in existence that has more fulness of body and richness of taste and color than the one with which we are baptised?
Extract is another factor when it comes to the body of the wine. It consists of all the solids in the wine including remaining sugars, tannins, pigments and minerals that give it substance. When I think of the word substance, I think of faith for “faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen” (Hebrews 11:1). I also think of a foundation for “other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ” (1 Corinthians 3:11). Though the leaven is killed in the wine, sugar remains, sweetness remains. Isn’t the wine of Christ sweet to us? The only thing sweeter, more palatable and precious to a saved sinner than the atoning blood of Christ and His body (the bread), is Christ Himself.
Consider also the natural pigments in the wine; they remind me of how we are stained, even dyed, with the blood of the Lamb and how our garments are made white therein. The remaining minerals point to the spiritual nourishment that flows from this wine. And then you have the tannins… the natural organic compounds found in the skins, seeds, and stems of the grape. Some of these tannins are infused into the wine during the aging process and give it structure and texture (as well as playing a role in the richness of colour and flavour); what is not needed is filtered out. The wine of Christ is perfectly tanninned (to use such a term); it has an infinite, unbreakable, and incorruptible structure, one that binds the body in perfection. The texture and feel of the wine, as we partake of it, gives us unspeakable joy and pleasure. The richness of the color, even the color of the blood of the Lamb, is a wonder to behold. What glory and wonder is in the Lord of creation and salvation! What splendor there is in His blood!
Partaking Of The Wine
For the Christian, wine is a lawful source of joy and good cheer when handled properly (i.e. in moderation and with concern for others); thus, God calls it a blessing. It typifies the fact that when we are spiritually infirmed, spiritually down (nigh unto despair), and full of doubts and fears, we have the wine of Christ that fills our hearts with the joy of His salvation (Psalm 51:12) when experimentally applied. We should no more abstain from wine before the ungodly than Christ should have abstained from picking the corn or healing on the Sabbath.
From a salvific point of view, there is no wedding without purity; there is no purity without atonement; and there is no atonement without wine (atoning blood). You simply cannot have a spiritual wedding without spiritual wine. The Lord Jesus typified the spiritual wedding and wine when He turned the water into wine (pointing to His turning the prophesies of the Scripture, the Gospel, into the reality of His propitiatory work). He was not turning water into unfermented grape juice because unfermented grape juice leavens whereas wine has no more leaven in it. Since grape juice ferments naturally after just a couple of days (due to that leaven in the skin of the grape), it is exceedingly hard to have old, unfermented grape juice (especially in the sense of such juice that cannot be leavened) despite the debunked arguments of Mr.Patton in his “Bible Wines” book. So when the “the governor of the feast called the bridegroom, and saith unto him, every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: [but] thou hast kept the good wine until now” he was not talking about their version of Welch’s. It would have been clear to all that the blessed wine, the wine that cheereth the heart of men, was real wine (fully fermented grape juice). God never forbade the drinking of wine for all, or even most, believers.
Moreover, as I have stated previously, Jesus would not have been called a winebibber for drinking grape juice. The Pharisees would not be saying, “look at this man, see how much grape juice he drinks, he must be a grape-juice-bibber.” God would not command elders, deacons, and elder widows to not drink too much wine (i.e. to not be given to wine or much wine) if he prohibited them from drinking it altogether. If one supposes that God did not want elders, deacons, and widows to drink too much plain grape juice, we would need to ask why? Besides a sugar rush, what is the harm in an excessive amount of plain fruit juice? None of this adds up if you insist on denying the alcoholic nature of biblical wine. Only those with a pre-taught, pre-existing abstinence/temperance/ teetotaling mindset could come to such conclusions. You see, starting in the 1800’s (especially in American and British Baptist churches), many started coming up with all sorts of reasons why the wine had to be unfermented grape juice. They came up with all manner of arguments pertaining to why the wine in winebibber didn’t meant wine, or meant watered-down wine that could not inebriate, etc. However, most all Jewish resources (e.g. various jewish/talmudic websites, the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, etc.) and just about every commentator from the early 1800’s and before, called wine… wine (acknowledging the need for moderation due to its inebriating effects).
Getting back to the wine, we must remember that as physical wine makes merry and is a blessing when used rightly, it becomes a curse when used in an ungodly manner. We are never to partake of wine if it is illegal to do so (as in certain public locations), unwise to do so (if you need to drive, use heavy machinery, etc.), or ungodly to do so (as in drinking in front of alcoholics, weaker brethren, those to whom you are witnessing if they are sensitive, etc.). Those who misuse it through over-indulgence, mixing it with harmful substances, and by drinking it in front of others improperly will likely reap the consequences in this life. Likewise, those who so water down the wine as to remove from it its natural healing properties will fail to reap the benefits of it (especially when we consider the many health benefits of red wine as affirmed by 1 Timothy 5:3).
This corresponds to the spiritual realm. Though all who rightly partake of the blood of Christ are made merry and are blessed by it, all who mishandle His blood will experience the awful consequences. We must never adulterate it (mixing it with the poisonous doctrines of this world), water it down (to artificially proliferate it, making it common and available to all), or drink it in such foolish abundance that we do so in the company of those who do not deserve it (calling them brethren, fellow-partakers of the wine, who would pollute it and trample upon it; we are not to bid god speed to those who come in the name of Christ, but who do not abide in the doctrine and true blood of Christ – 2 John 1:9-11).
End of Part One
Simply stating the above does not prove anything; what I want to do is provide the supporting material to back up these arguments. Although this will require a lot of groundwork, I trust that it will be worth it. This has been one of the most eye-opening studies that I have ever engaged in; I hope it will be a blessing to you. I hope I can help you see all the more that everything points back to the Lord Jesus Christ. Everything must glorify and honour Him. He must be the focal point of all that we seek to hear, learn, and do. Right doctrine is good, so is partaking of the meat of the word; however, if it does not cause us to want to love Him more, obey Him more, and profess Him more… what good is it… None whatsoever.
In the next part, I aim to look at the key words for wine in the Greek and Hebrew, and their roots. Remember the root word often gives context and richness to the derivatives; therefore, it is important to look at them carefully. I also want to look at how these words are used (in context) in the Bible to see what divine picture God has painted for us.
In all things, to Him be the glory forever and ever.
Continue to Part Two